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zhouguomin: “ronghekexue”guoneiwaishijianjiduinbapankoukejifazhandeqishi

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  “ronghekexue”shiyizhongshujuqudongdekexueyanjiuxinfanshi,zhizaitongguoduoxuekejiaocharongheshouduanlaiyanjiushengming、xinxi、nengyuan、huanjingdenglingyudezhongdakexuewenti,jiejuerenleikechixufazhansuomianlindezhongdajingjishehuiwenti。dangqian,quanqiuxinyilunkejigeminghechanyebiangexushidaifa,xinxijishu、shengwujishu、xincailiaojishudengguangfanshentoudaonbapankoudegegelingyu,zhengyinlingnbapankoujishubiangeshengji、fazhanfangshijiakuaizhuanxinghechanyegejushendudiaozheng,xuekeronghefazhanchengweijinpodexuqiu,poqiexuyaogenzongguoneiwai“ronghekexue”defazhandongtai,cujin“ronghekexue”fanshizainbapankoukexueyanjiuzhongdeyingyong。

  一、“融合科学”的缘起和特征

  shangshiji40niandaixingqidegeleixuekejiaochayanjiuheshimingdaoxiangyanjiu,zai21 shijichuqizhujianyanbianchengyizhongjiyuduoxuekeronghelaijiejuezhongdawentidekeyanxinfanshi——“ronghekexue”(convergence science,youyiwei“huijukexue”),tashixuekejiaochayanjiudeyanxu,shiyiyizhonggengshenru、gengzhudongdefangshijiangduogexuekedezhishihejishuzhenghedaoyiqi,yijiejuezuijinpodekexueheshehuitiaozhan。

  yuxianyoudekexueyanjiufanshixiangbi,zuoweiyizhongxindekeyanfanshide“ronghekexue”youruxiayixietezheng。

  特征一: 问题导向。“融合科学”是以解决重大问题为导向和最终目标的一种科研新范式,通常用于解决一个特定挑战或机遇的需要,或迫切的社会需求,或深层次的科学问题,或紧迫的工程研究问题。例如,随着大数据时代的到来,现有存贮技术和计算技术都遇到挑战,即内存墙的冯·诺伊曼瓶颈和摩尔定律的工程瓶颈,科技界就将目光投向了信息技术和生物技术的融合研究,探索用DNA来存储信息,发展生物启发计算技术。2013年美国半导体研究联盟启动了“半导体合成生物技术”融合研究项目,2018年更是首次发布了“半导体合成生物学路线图”。上个世纪以来一直作为独立学科发展的生物技术和信息技术出现了深度融合发展。

  特征二: 链式融合。与传统科研范式重在知识发现或技术发明相比,“融合科学”在重大经济社会问题导向下,通过整合多个学科领域的知识、技能和工具,形成一个全面、综合的问题解决框架,构建一个多方权益主体共同参与的、覆盖从知识发现到知识应用的完整创新链条,发现新知识,研发新技术,创制新产品,实现科学研究从问题中来、到问题中去的闭环过程。

  特征三: 语言融通。促进交叉融合研究项目需要打破学科的语言壁垒、增强彼此了解和联结后才能形成。与现有的多学科研究、跨学科研究、交叉学科研究范式相比,“融合科学”不再是仅仅考虑不同学科的知识、技能和工具相互影响、相互作用,或者简单地把不同学科的研究人员聚集在一起,从不同侧面来研究同一个问题。例如,在交叉学科研究范式中,nba盘口信息技术就是把信息技术的知识、技能和工具用在nba盘口的研究中。“融合科学”更强调围绕重大问题,不同学科的研究人员共同设定研究目标、设计研究实验、分析实验数据,在整个研究过程中,不同的知识、理论、方法、数据频繁地相互交织和影响,形成不同学科人员之间能共同理解的研究框架、共有的科学语言、共用的科学数据、共识的分析方法。

  特征四: 数据驱动。“融合科学”项目需要在一个共同的科学数据平台上开展,不同学科可以在一个共同的数据池中开展挖掘分析研究,科学数据成为不同学科融合联结的节点,同时汇聚的科学数据大量应用也促进各学科向数据密集型研究范式转变。上世纪80年代,欧美等发达国家建立的NCBI数据库、EBI数据库和DDBJ数据库,不但推动了基因科学数据的开放共享,更是促进了信息科学和生命科学的融合研究。数据在生物科学研究中广泛应用,使得生命科学从“实验驱动”向“数据驱动”转型发展,促进生物技术往信息化、工程化、系统化方向发展,并朝着可定量、可计算、可调控和可预测的方向跃升。

  二、“融合科学”的国内外实践

nba滚球  oumeifadaguojiashifenzhongshirongheyanjiu。2010nian,mashengligongxueyuanzhuanmenchenglileyi“ronghekexue”xinfanshiweizhudaodekeheyanjiusuo,zhizaitongguokeyanzuzhiheguanlifangmiandexinjizhiyu“ronghekexue”xinfanshixiangpeihe,youqishi“ronghekexue”suoyaoqiudeshujukaifanghegongxiang,zhenduiaizhengxiangguandezhongdawentikaizhanduoxuekeronghegongguan,yichengweimeiguonaizhiquanqiushijian“ronghekexue”xinfanshidegaodi。2011nian,meiguomashengligongxueyuanfabu“ronghekexue”baipishu,shoucitichushengmingkexue、wulixuehegongchengxuede“ronghe”daibiaozheshengmingkexueyanjiudisancizhongdabiange。2016nian,meiguoguojiakexuejijinhuitichudeweilaishidaxiangmujihuazhong,fazhanrongheyanjiushiqizhongjihuazhiyi,zuoweijizhihezhichengchuangxinleijihua,qizhuyaomubiaoshizaixianyoudexuekejiaochalingyu,tichujiejuejinpodekexuehegongchengxueyanjiuwentideronghefangfa。oumengde“dipingxian2020”jihuazhongyezhuanmensheyouzhichirongheyanjiudexiangmu。

  woguoduixuekejiaocharongheyanjiufeichangguanzhu。2006nianshishide《guojiazhongzhangqikexuehejishufazhanguihuagangyao(2006—2020nian)》qiangdiaocujinxuekejiaochafazhan,qihoushelidedanbaizhiyanjiu、liangzidiaokongyanjiu、namiyanjiu、fayuyushengzhiyanjiudeng4gezhongdayanjiujihuadouzaibutongchengdushejixuekejiaocharongheyanjiu。guojiazirankexuejijinweiyuanhuizichengliyishi,jiushelilezhongdaxiangmulaizhichixuekejiaochayanjiu,2001niankaishishishidezhongdayanjiujihua,gengshijiangzhichixuekejiaocharonghefazhanzuoweimubiaozhiyi。

nba滚球  zhongguokexueyuanzaishishizhishichuangxingongchengguochengzhong,jiuweiraoshengmingkexue、naozhikexue、xinxikexue、wuzhikexuedengjinxingduoxuekejiaocha,bingchuangliyixiexindejiaochaxuekeyanjiuzhongxin,congkexueguannian、zhanlvesixiang、tizhihejizhi、zuzhiguanli、xuekejiegoudengduogefangmianlaiquanmianshiying“ronghekexue”defazhanqushi。

  2017nianchenglidezhongguokexueyuanshenzhenxianjinjishuyanjiuyuanhechengshengwuxueyanjiusuojiujijikaizhan“ronghekexue”shijian,zaixuekeronghefazhanfangmianqudelezhongyaojinzhan。yanjiusuotongguodazaokaifangjiaochahezuopingtai,huijuguoneiwaihechengshengwuxuelingyuqingnianguganjihaineiwailingjunkexuejia,dazaoleyizhinianqingyouhuoli、duoxuekeronghedeqianyanchuangxintuandui,jianchenglequanzidonghuashiyanshi、yunduanshiyanshidenglinianqianzhandekeyanjichusheshi,caiyonghechengshengwuxuedegongchenghuashejilinian,kaizhanrenzaoshengmingyuanjian、jiyinxianlu、shengwuqijian、duoxibaotixidenghechengzaizaoyanjiu,shixianleshengwujishu、xinxijishu、gongchengjishuderonghechuangxin。

nba滚球  zhejiangdaxue2018nianqidongshishichuangxin2030jihuaxiangmu,jizhongyoushixuekeliliang,zainaokexueyurengongzhineng、liangzijisuanyuganzhi、shengtaiwenmingyuhuanjingkejichuangxin、nbapankoushejiyuzhongdenglingyujinxinglebuju,shishizhihuihaiyangjihua、jingzhunyixuejihua、chaozhonglijihua、tiangongjihuadengkexuejihua,jijitansuoxuekejiaocharonghexinmoshi。muqianyiqudeleyipibiaozhixingchengguo,xuekeqianyanchuangxinheronghezaofengchengxiaochuxian。

  三、“融合科学”对我国nba盘口科技发展的启示

nba滚球  dangjinkeyanyijingjinru“ronghekexue”heshujumijixingkexuefaxiandexinshidai。nbapankoukexuebenzhishangshiyimenyingyongkexue,wentidaoxiangshideduoxuekejiaocharongheyanjiuduicujinnbapankoukejifazhanjuyouzhongyaoyiyi,guoneiwai“ronghekexue”deshijianjingyanzhidewomenjiejian。

  (一)深刻认识“融合科学”新范式带来的科研管理变革

nba滚球  congkejifazhantaishikan,xinyilunkejigemingzhengzaixingqi,keyanfanshizhengzaifashengshenkebiange,xuekejiaocharonghedashisuoqu。yincixuyaorenzhenfenxikeyanfanshibiangededongyin、xingshiheyingxiang,zaizhuzhongkexuewentiyanjiubenshenzhiwai,yeyaoguanzhukeyanfanshibiangeduikexueyanjiudeyingxiang,jianchikejichuangxinhezhiduchuangxinde“shuanglunqudong”。zaikeyanguanlizhong,xuyaobuduanyouhuaxuekebujuhewanshanxuekejiaocharonghejizhi,weiraoxinxingrongheyanjiupingtaichuangli、ronghekexuejihuamouhua、ronghexiangmushezhi、kexueshujugongxiangdengfangmianlaituidong“ronghekexue”fazhan。

  (二)积极探索“融合科学”范式在nba盘口科研中应用实践

nba滚球  woguozhengzaizouchanchugaoxiao、chanpinanquan、ziyuanjieyue、huanjingyouhaodenbapankouxiandaihuadaolu,nongchanpinxiaofeimoshizhengyouwenbaoxingzhubuzhuanbianweianquan、yingyang、jiankangxing。yincixuyaotongguoshengwujishu、xinxijishu、xincailiaojishudejiaocharonghefazhan,jiangouyigaoxiaonbapankou、zhihuinbapankou、lvsenbapankoudengweitesedenbapankoujishuxintixi,cucheng“ronghekexue”fanshidexingcheng,tuidonglinianronghe、jishujichenghegongchengxietong,tishengnbapankoukejichuangxinxiaoneng。liru,yiwoguozhuyaoliangyouzuowuweiduixiang,ronghekaizhanjiyinzuxue、xitongshengwuxue、shengwuxinxixueyanjiu,jieshizhongyaonbapankouxingzhuangxingchengdefenzijizhi,cujinzhongyeyuantouchuangxin。zhenduiwoguonbapankouzhongdashengwuzaihai,ronghekaizhanweishengwuzuyuzhiwu、dongwudexianghuzuoyongyanjiu,jieshineizaixianghuzuoyongjili,yijiqidailaileshengwuxueyushengtaixuedexiaoying,weilvsenbapankoufazhantigongyouxiaodecelve。weiraozhuyaonongzuowushengchanguanli,ronghekaizhangaojingdu、jingzhun、kexianchangbushudeshengwuchuanganqiyanjiu,goujiantiankongdiyitihuachuanganwangluo,zhelinbapankoushengchanguanlishujudecunchuanguanyong,shixianzhihuinbapankou。

  (三)构筑支撑“融合科学”的nba盘口科学数据开放平台

nba滚球  kexueshujukaifanggongxiangshishixian“ronghekexue”xinfanshidezhongyaozhicheng。2019nian6yuekejibufawenyituonbagunqiunbagunqiuguanwangdengdanweichengliguojianbapankoukexueshujuzhongxin,tuidongnbapankoulingyukexueshujudehuijiaoyukaifang。2017nian,nbapankounongcunbubushushishinbapankoukejijichuxingzhangqixinggongzuo,dajianqiyiguojianbapankoukexueguancezhanweijichudenbapankoukexuezhangqiguancewangluo,kaiqinbapankoukexueshujudexitonghuacaijihewajuefenxiyingyong。zheixiepingtaidejianlijidadicujinlenbapankoulingyukexueshujudekaifanggongxiang,danyuzhicheng“ronghekexue”fazhandexuqiuxiangbi,haixuyaojinyibuwanshan。xiayibu,nbapankoukexueshujukaifangpingtaixuweiraojutide“ronghekexue”jihuaxiangmu,nbapankoukexueshujupingtaijiansheyugongxiangyingyongbingzhong,xitongguancedashujuyukeyanxiangmuxiaoshujubingzhong,zhupingtai,huishuju,cukaifang,qiangyingyong,quanmianzhicheng“ronghekexue”fazhan。

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