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nba滚球yanchangrong: woguonongtiandimocanliuwurandejiejuezhidaozainaer?

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nba滚球  2020nian9yue1riqi,nbapankounongcunbu、gongyehexinxihuabu、shengtaihuanjingbu、shichangjianguanzongjudengsibumenlianhebanbude《nongyongbomoguanlibanfa》kaishishishi,duinongmoshengchan、xiaoshou、shiyong、huishou、zailiyongjijianguandenghuanjieyuyiguifan。《nongyongbomoguanlibanfa》shiweilejiaqiangnongyongbomojianduguanli,fangzhinongmowuran,baohuhegaishannbapankoushengtaihuanjing,luoshi《zhonghuarenmingongheguoturangwuranfangzhifa》deyoulijucuo。

nba滚球  yu2020nian1yueguojiafazhangaigeweiheshengtaihuanjingbu《guanyujinyibujiaqiangsuliaowuranzhilideyijian》zhongguanyujinzhixiaoshouhouduxiaoyu0.01haomidejuyixinongyongdimodeyaoqiuyiyang,《nongyongbomoguanlibanfa》defabushishizaiyiciyinqileshehuiduinongmocanliuwuranwentideguanzhu,dimofugaijishuhequhecong,nongmowuranyinggairuhefangzhi,chuluhezai?weicinbapankounongcunbunongmowuranfangkongzhongdianshiyanshigenjuyiyoudeyanjiujieguo,tichuyixiekanfaheyijian,xiwanghuidaguanyuzheigewentidebufenshehuiguanqie。

  一、地膜覆盖是我国农产品安全供应的关键举措之一,决不能因噎废食,要客观认识地膜覆盖技术应用的重要性

  woguomeiniannongzuowubozhongmianjibaochizai24yiduomu,zhuyaozuowufumomianjijin3.0yimu,nongzuowudimofugaibilvzai12.7%zuoyou;qizhongyancao、dasuanhemianhuazhongzhizhongdimofugaijishuyingyongbilvjiaogao,junchaoguo70%,qicishijiagongfanqie、xiangrikui、tiancaiheshucaideng,yingyongbilvzai25%~50%。yumi、zaliangheguaguodedimofugaijishuyededaodamianjiyingyong,yingyongbilvchaoguo10%。dimofugaijishunenggoudafudutigaonongzuowuchanliang,yibanzuowuzengchanlvzai20%~30%,genjuchubugusuan,woguodimofugaijishushinongzuowuzengchansuodailaidezhijiejingjixiaoyizai1200—1400yiyuan/nian。rudimofugaijishugaibianlewoguomianhuashengchandequyubuju,xinjiangneilumianquchengweiwoguomianhuadezhuyaochanqu,jinnianlai,xinjiangmianhuabozhongmianji3700duowanmu,zhanquanguo70%yishang,chanliangzhan83%;2019nianquanjiangshengchanpimian500.2wandun,dimofugaijishugongxianlequanguo39%demianhuachanliang,zengjiazhijiejingjixiaoyijin240yiyuan。suoyi,dimofugaijishuyingyongduiwoguonbapankoushengchanhenongchanpinanquangongjidegongxianyinggaidedaochongfenkending。

  二、农田地膜残留已对我国nba盘口生产产生了直接危害和损失,须直面问题,寻找解决之道

  muqian,dimocanliuyijijubudiqudenbapankoushengchanhehuanjingzaochenglebulideyingxiangheweihai,youqishixinjiangneilumianqu。zhuyaotixianzai3gefangmian,yishiyingxiangmianhuabozhongzuoye,zengjialaodonglitouru。zaixinjiangmianhuabozhongzuoyeshi,bozhongjihouzongyaogenrenchulicanmo。juceding,zaicanmowuranyanzhongdemiantian,dimocanpianjinrubozhongjiyatuguntonghouhuiduzhuchutukou,daozhibozhonghoudetianchuangyanzigaibushangtu;lingwai,dapiandimocanpianchanraoyamolunhuidaozhiyamoluntingzhizhuandong,yinfaboxiazhongzihezhongkongcuowei。weilebimianshangshuqingkuangfasheng,yibanbozhongjixingzou1000mizuoyoushi,jiuxuyaotingxialaiduiyatuguntong、yamolun、kaigoupianhefupianshangdecanmojinxingqingli,fangzhihebimianbozhongkongmeiyouyatu、canmochanraozuoyejijubujian,yanzhongyingxianglebozhongzuoyexiaolvhezhiliang。ershizengjianongshizuoyegongxu,jiangdimianhuachanliangshuiping。youyudimocanliu,meinianmianhuashouhuohouhediernianbozhongqianxuyaojinxingdimohuishou,meimuzengjiazuoyechengben30yuan,xinjiangquanqudimohuishouzuoyexuzengjiatouru11.4yiyuan。tongshi,guancejieguoxianshi,zhangqifumomiantian(30nianyishang)ruguobujinxingdimohuishouchuli,mianhuadanchanjiangxiajiang5%yishang。sanshijiangdimianhuachanpinzhiliang,yingxiangnongminjingjishouru。canmosuizhejixiecaishouhunrumianhua,shizaochengxinjiangmianjiagongpinzhicha、wufashiyinggaoduanfangzhixuqiudezhuyaoyuanyin。yijuguojiabiaozhun《mianhuaxirongmian》(gb1103-2007),pimianyixingxianweihanliang0.8ke/dunweilinjiezhi,ermuqianxinjiangzimiandedimocanpianhanliangyibanzai2.0ke/dunzuoyou,jingguojixieherengongtiaojianhou,pimiandimocanpianhanliangyibanzai0.3-1.5ke/dun,daozhipimianjiagexiajiang600—1000yuan/dun,bufencanmoliangtaigaodaozhipimianchuyuwanquanwushichangzhuangtai。ruguoanzhao2019nianxinjiang500wandunpimianzhongyouyibanshoudaoyingxiang,ershimianhuapinzhijiangdi2gedengji,jiagejiangjiangdi800yuan/dunzuoyou,zezhijiejingjisunshijianggaoda20yiyuan,youcikejiandimocanliuyingxiangmianhuapinzhisuozaochengdejingjisunshishishifenjudade。

  chulexinjiangmianhuashengchanshoudaoyingxiang,chanshengjingjisunshiwai,huabeidiqudehuashengyindimocanliuzaochengdesunshiyeriyiyanzhong。jinnianlai,huashengzhongzhizhongcaiyongdimofugaijishuyuelaiyuepubian,youqihuabeidiqudeshandongshenghehebeishengyijidongbeidiqu,dimofugaishihuashengdanchanzengjia20%~30%。jugusuan,huashengfumozhongzhimianjizhanquanguohuashengzongbozhongmianjide27%zuoyou,mianjidagaizai1866wanmu,dimofugaizaitigaohuashengdanchandetongshi,shouhuohoudimocanliuyejihuashengjieganliyongdailaibuliyingxiang。anzhao1866wanmufumohuashengjisuan,jiangchanshenghuashengjiegan467wandun(muchanhuashengyang250qiankezuoyou,danjia0.6-0.8yuan/qianke),weileliyonghuashengjieganzuoweishengchusiliao,nongminbudebujinxingqumochuli,meimuhuashengyangchulichengbenzai30-50yuan/mu(quanbuchulixuyaozengjia6yi-10yiyuandetouru)。dimocanliuyifangmiandaozhihuashengyangzhiliangjiangdi,tongshiyejiadalehuashengjieganzuoweisiliaodeshengchanchengben。

  三、农田微塑料、塑化剂和重金属等是否来自农膜已成为热点话题,须科学客观评估,回应社会关切

  suliaowuran、weisuliaowuranshimuqianshehuiguanqiederedianhuati,zaiquanqiufanweikan,suliaowuranzhongdianhaishizaihaiyang、heliuzhong,turangsuliaowuranxiangduieryanshuyubijiaoxiaozhongde、zhihoudeyanjiudianhehuati。duiwoguoeryan,youyudimofugaiyingyongdeteshuxing(quanqiudimoyongliang74%zaizhongguo),nongtianturangdimocanliushiwoguoteyoudewuranwenti,zheizhongwurandexianzhuangheweihai,youqishiturangzhongweixiaosuliaoshuliangheweihaijibenshangshuyukongbai。2020nian7yue13ri,lilianzhenzai《ziran-kechixuxing》zaixianfabiaodelunwenzhongfaxian,namijisuliaokeli(dayue50nami)keyichuantouzhiwugenbujinruzhiwuzuzhizhong,weisuliaojinrulerenleideshiwulian。youkexuejiayoucirenwei“turangzhongdeweisuliaokenengshiyigegengyanzhongdehuanjingwenti”。zaidangjinsuliaowusuobuzaideshidai,guanyunongtiansuliaowurandewenti,womenjibunengwudongyuzhong,yejuebukeguofenkuada,ershixuyaojiakuaizheifangmiandeyanjiuhezonghepinggu,jinkuaichengweizhengfujuecedejishuzhicheng。

nba滚球  guoqujinianlai,nbapankounongcunbunongmowuranfangkongzhongdianshiyanshigenjushiyanheyiyoudewenxian,dechuleyixiachubujielun。

  (一)农田地膜残留污染影响土壤生物的生长发育

  qiuyinshiturangzhongshengwuliangzuidadedongwuleiqunzhiyi,zhanturangdongwushengwuzongliangde60%,changyongyuturangwuranjianding。yanjiuxianshi,huanjingnongdujuyixiyuanweisuliaokenengyinqiqiuyinchangdaosunshang,danbaizhi、baohezhifangsuanhanliangshenggaodengmianyiyingjifanying;gaonongduweisuliaowurankezaiduanqineiyinqimingxianqubifanying,bingyanzhongjiangdiqiuyinshengzhangsudu,yizhizidaifuhuashuliang。suisuliaopeifangchayikebiaoxianchumingxianbutongdeshengwuduxingxiaoying,rujubenyixiweisuliaozai1%zhiliangnongduxiajikexianzhuyizhiqiuyinshengzhangbingzaochengqiuyinsiwang。zongtieryan,huanjingwurannongdutiaojianxiadeweisuliaoduxingxiaoyingrengyoudaijinyibuyanjiu,dangaowurannongduxia,yujuyixidimoyuanweisuliaoxiangbi,shengwujiangjiedimocailiaobiaoxianchumingxianzengqiangdeduxingxiaoying,kezaiduanshijianneiduiqiuyinqubixingwei、shengzhangfayu、shengcunhefanzhichanshengmingxianyingxiang。

  (二)地膜覆盖和残留对土壤塑化剂的贡献有限

  nongchanpinzhongsuhuajishiyigeshehuigongzhongjiweiguanxindewenti,yourenrenweidimocanliushinongchanpin,youqishiguaguo、shucaileisuhuajidelaiyuan。2020nian,womenduiquanguo100duogedimoyangpinjiancejieguoxianshi,dimozhong6zhongzhuyaosuhuajinongduwei14.6haoke/qianke,yuanyuandiyufeiliaobiaozhunbiaosuhuajihanliangxiaoyu25haoke/qiankedeyaoqiu(gb 38400-2019),anzhaozheigebiaozhunjisuan,dimofugaihecanliuwuranyunongchanpinsuhuajisihubingmeiyouzhijieguanlian。yinci,guanyuzheigewenti,shehuishang,baokuoxueshujiedoucunzaijiaodazhengyi,nongchanpinanquanwuxiaoshi,dimofugaijicanliuwuranshifouyunongchanpinzhongsuhuajichaobiaocunzaiguanlian,shiyigexuyaorenzhenduidaidewenti,yinggaiyoumingqueheqingxidedaan。

  (三)地膜覆盖和残留与土壤重金属问题无关

nba滚球  2020nian,duiquanguo50gedimoyangpinzhongjinshuhanliangcedingjieguoxianshi,dimozhongqueshicunzaiyidinghanliangdezhongjinshu,dangenju《turanghuanjingzhiliangbiaozhun(xiuding)gb 15618—2008》zhongyouguanturangwujiwudehuanjingzhilidierjibiaozhundeyaoqiu,dimozhongzhongjinshuhanliangdoudiyuturangzhongjizhongzhongjinshudezuidiyaoqiu,dimozhongzhongjinshuduiturangdeyingxiangbucunzai。tongshi,dimoshiyizhongdimianfugaicailiao,tajibenshangfugaizainongtianbiaomian,yongliangyejiqiyouxian(dimodayuezai5qianke/muzuoyou,feiliaozaidayu100qianke/muji,guangaiyongshuize500—1000lifangmi/mu),jiazhidimocailiaodewendingxing,tayuturangjiqizufenfashengshengwuhuaxuefanyingdeguochengwanquanbutongyufeiliao、shuifenhenongyaodeng,dimozhongzhongjinshuyuansujinruturangdeguochengjiangshifenhuanman,dimozhongzhongjinshuhuisuizhedimohuishouerlikainongtian。yinci,womenrenweidimozhongzhongjinshuwentishiyigeweimingti,bushiyigeqianzaidewenti,yemeiyouhuanjingfengxian。

  四、我国农田农膜残留污染问题解决的出路在哪里

  (一)发达国家农膜处理和管理的模式

nba滚球  tashanzhishikeyigongyu,woguodedimofugaijishulaiziriben,neimeribendengfadaguojiashiruhechulizheigewentideni?tamendezuofashifoujuyoujiejianyiyi?tongguodiaochalejiefaxian,qitaguojiahediqudimoyingyongmianjishifenyouxian(yuezhanzuowumianji10%),zhongdianguojiahediqushiriben、hanguo、ouzhou、meiguohenanmeizhoudeng,yigaohoudu(20weimiyishang)、gaoqiangdudedimozhanjueduiyoushi,yingyongduixiangzhuyaoshijingjizuowuheshucaideng,zaidatianliangshizuowumianjihenxiao。zaifumozuowushouhuohoujinxingdimohuishoushiguojishangtongyongde、qiangzhixingdezuofa,danchulifangshicunzaichayi。zairiben,huishoudimoshizuoweichanyelajijinxingchuli,duidimoshiyongzhe、chulizhedequanyijinxinglemingqueguiding,jidimoshiyongzheyoushiyongdimodequanli,danyefuyouhuishou、qingxihejiaojichuliqiyedeyiwu。nongminbufenfufeirangxiangguangongyileiqiyehuogongsijiangyonghoudimoyunzouchuli,zhengfuxuyaoduidimohuishouchulijiyuyidingbilidetouru。zaiouzhou,dabufenguojiacaiyongshengchanzheyouxiandudezerenyanshenzhi,dimoshiyongzhezaiyonghouxuyaoduidimojinxinghuishouchuli,bingduifangzaitiantou,dimoshengchanzhehuozheshiweituoqiye,zaizhengfuzizhuxiaduidimojinxinghuishouchuli。

  (二)必须构建中国地膜回收处理生产者责任延伸机制

nba滚球  xiangbiqitaguojia,woguodedimoyingyongjuyouteshuxing,tongyang,dimohuishouchuliyezhishijin5nianlaicaikaishishoudaoshehuihezhengfugaoduzhongshideyigewenti。zongtieryan,woguodimohuishouchulihaixiangduicufang,guanyudimohuishouchulidefalv、faguiheguanlibanfayeshijinjiniankaishizheshouzhidinghebanbu,danguanyujutideshishijizhihaimeiyouwanquanjianli,haizaimosuozhizhong。genjuguoneiwaidiaoyan,zuozherenweixuyaoshouxianmingquezhengfubumen、dimoshengchanzhe、xiaoshouzhe、shiyongzhedequanli、zerenheyiwu,goujianyoudimochanyelianxiangguanfanggongtongchengdandedimoshengchanzheyouxianzerenyanshenjizhi。

nba滚球  zaizhengfubumenfangmian,zongtishang,mingquehuishoudimoshinbapankoudechanyelaji,erbushikeyiziwoxunhuandeziyuan。zhengfufuyouduidimoshengchan、xiaoshou、huishouchulijianguanhewenzequanli,tongshihaiyinggaiweihuishoudimochulichengdanyidingdeyiwuhezeren(touruyidingbilidezijin,huozheshitongguobutienongminjinxinggengdidiliweichi,younongminxiangxiangguandimohuishouqiyejinxingzhifu。ribenzhengfutouruledimochulifeiyongde1/3,woguoyinggaitouruduoshaoxuyaojinxingyanjiuqueding)。zuoweidimoshiyongzhe,juyoushiyongdimodequanli,dantongshibixuchengdanxiangyingdezerenheyiwu,zhuyaoshibixuchengdandimoshiyongjieshuhoujiangdimoanzhaoyidingyaoqiushouhuilaibingjinxingshidangchulidezerenheyiwu(zheigewentimuqianbingmeiyoujinxingmingqueguiding,yinggaijiejianribenheouzhoudejingyan,qianghuashiyongzhequanlihezerenyiwu)。zuoweidimoshengchanzhehexiaoshouzhe,juyoutongguoshengchanxiaoshouhegedimochanpinzhuanqulirundequanli,tongshi,anzhaoguojiahedifangyouguanguidingshengchanhegedimochanpinzeshibuketuixiedezerenheyiwu,qieyudifangzhengfu、dimoshiyongzhegongtongwanchengshiyonghoudedimohuishouchulishiqiyouxianyanshenzeren。zaizheiyangyigekuangjiaxia,zaixianyudanyuan(huozhexiangzhen)yinrudimohuishouchuliqiye(zhengfutongguogoumaifuwujiangbufenzijintouruqiye,dimoshengchanxiaoshouzhebutiehuishouqiye、huishoudedimochulihuodebufencanzhi),zhengfukaizhanguanlihetouru、shengchanhexiaoshouzhebufenbutiehuishouqiye,shiyongzhetongguolaodonglitouru,zaibutongquyugoujianshihegezishijiqingkuangde、duofangtouruhecanyudimohuishouchulixitong,xingchengkeyizaiyidingchengdushangziwoweichiyunxingdexitong。

  tongshi,bixuduihuishoudimodechulihezailiyongjinxingkexuepinggu,congduoweidukaolvhuishoudimodechulu,xingchengkeshishi、keluodidechulifangfa。huishoudimodechulihezailiyongdetujingduozhongduoyang,daodixuanzehezhongfangfaqujueyuhuishoudimobenshendetedian、suochudehuanjingjisuoyongyoudejishuhejingjitiaojian,yincisuoyoudezailiyonghechulifangshiyinggaishikaifangde,keyixuanzede。muqian,jixuduibutonghuishoudimochulifangshi(qizhiditou、tianmai、jiudifenshao、kongzhifenshao、huishouqingxizaoli、huishoujiandanqinglimusuyuanliaodengdeng)deshengtai、jingjihehuanjingyingxiangjinxingzonghepingjia,xingchenghuishoudimoxuanzechulihezailiyongfangshidejishugongju,jianghuishoudaotiantoudaobiandedimokexuechuli,fangzhichanshengerciwurandewenti。(tongxunyuan wangjia)

nba滚球  zuozhexinbagunqiunbapankouhuanjingyukechixufazhanyanjiusuoyanjiuyuan

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